## Power

- ↑1 power: human (200,000 BC, 75W)
- ↑2 power: horse (2000 BC, 750W)
- ↑5 power: automobile (1900, 200HP=150kW)
- ↑7 power: jetplane (1950, 90MW)
- ↑10 power: Three Gorges Dam (2012, 22GW)
- ↑10 power: rocket (2010, 26GW)
- ↑13 power: total human power consumption

### Conversions

- ↑-19: electronvolt (eV)
- ↑-6: erg
- ↑0: joule, watt
- ↑4: AA battery
- ↑8: therm
- ↑0.6: heat calorie
- ↑10: barrel of oil or gasoline
- ↑12.6: kiloton of TNT

- dynamite: 4MJ/kg = ↑6
- gasoline: 45MJ/kg = ↑7
- Hydrogen combustion: 140MJ/kg = ↑8
- Uranium fission: 80TJ/kg = ↑13
- Hydrogen fusion: 500TJ/kg = ↑14
- Antimatter: 90PJ/kg = ↑17 (almost)

#### Derived Units

A kilowatt-hour is ↑6.5 energy: ↑3 (kilo) + ↑0 (watt) + ↑3.5 (hour).

A food calorie (kcal) is ↑3.6 energy: ↑3 (k) x ↑0.6 (cal).

1 “toe” (ton of oil equivalent = 10 gigacalories) is ↑10.6 energy. So an “Mtoe” (million tons of oil equivalent) is ↑16.6 energy.

#### Example: Human power consumption

Energy statistics are given in a variety of units, like MToe/year and TWh/year. MToe/year is ↑16.6 (as above)

The world produces ↑20.5 energy per year. Factoring out the year (↑7.5) gives ↑13 power.

So humans need 1000x more power to become a Kardashian Type I civilization.

##### calories in, calories out

Human daily energy intake is 2000 kcal:

```
↑3.3 2000
↑3.6 kcal
```

`↑2 power input`

Human power output is about ↑1.5 minimum, ↑2 sustained, ↑3 peak.

#### Example: Kardashev Civilizations

For what it’s worth, the sun radiates ↑27 power, and the earth receives ↑17 power from that.

Kardashev Type I/II/III civilizations are ↑17/↑27/↑37 plus or minus ↑2.